Sturgeons are said to be long-living fishes as they reside near the water body’s surface and are often referred to as living fossils because they have been in a sort of similar form from almost hundreds of millenniums.
In a research conducted by Jack Stack, who is a graduate from the University of Pennsylvania and Lauren Sallan, who is a paleobiologist from Penn’s School of Arts and Sciences, in the Zoological Journal of the Linnean Society carefully researched on Tanyrhinichthys mcallisteri. It is an ancient breed of fishes which existed about 300 millenniums ago in a firth which is nowadays New Mexico. With that same jut snout, they are said to be very similar to sturgeons biologically. This tells that nowadays sturgeons have evolved from Tanyrhinichthys mcallisteri as they have inherited some qualities of theirs.
This finding clarifies that Tanyrhinichthys mcallisteri had some qualities that made them adapt to their climate and in with variation in their fish types several times which is now translated as innovation and that wasn’t considered a thing for fishes until now.
Sallan, who is a senior author of this research, also said that sturgeons have always been considered as primitive species but what they are trying to show cast is that it is not the case as their way of living has changed from time to time.
Jack Stack, who started studying this fish type when he was an undergraduate, also said that fishes are skilled enough to find solutions to environmental issues faced by them and he also said that this tells us that fishes are innovative and merging in them is conceivable. When they get in abundance, they start producing some new morphological structures that then start evolving into new fish breeds and this has happened numerous times under the same environmental circumstances.
In 1984, Tanyrhinichthys’ first fossil was found at Kinney Brick Quarry near Albuquerque which was said to be the place with an abundance of fossils. Michael Gottfried was the first paleontologist to characterize this species.
Stack also says that the species looks as if someone removed the front of the skull. These jut snouts help the fishes, whether swordfish or sailfish, to poke the prey as this gives them aid while attacking. This ability also is from the unique old fishes. Gottfried in 1080 also said that the specimen looked like a pike, an attacking predator with a long snout.
However, more specimens of Tanyrhinichthys have been found in the previous decade. Stack says that they have proved to be very essential for their study of this fish species as they have a lot more information about them. During the time of Pangea, which was a massive continent on the Earth a long time ago, Tanyrhinichthys were also present. It was also an ice age and just before this time, a lot of fossils dating back show that there was a lot of variance in fish types that had ray fins but after 300 millenniums it stopped. Sallan says that it is possible that there was a variety afterward too but there hasn’t been a lot of study on that timeline.
Sallan and Jack also tried studying the specimens along with other fishes for that timeline, but they are preserved due to which they have been compressed flat. They have implied a 3D anatomy from the recent time fishes for their guidance. Researchers have found some doubts about the fish’s shape. They have got some differences from pike as they have an elongated snout but with its jaws at the bottom, not at the end of it. Stack said that this fish has a resemblance to the fishes who lives and feeds at the bottom of water bodies. They also have canal shaped structures on the snout which is at its head’s top and that’s where its sensory organs are probably also located. Sallan also says that they could have vibration detection to eat their quarry. Researchers also found that other species who also dwelled in the bottom consist of long snouts. Their use has been best described because of the firth environment many water bodies joined making the water dirty so that’s why they use their sensory organs rather than their eyes for catching food.
Another thing found was that different species of ancient fishes had no morphological similarities to Tanyrhinichthys nor they had any similar type of breeds. It was also found that sturgeons also weren’t an evolution of Tanyrhinichthys. Researchers came to know that long spouts were a sign of merging evolvement or many other fish species adopting the innovation to have adaption to their habitat. It showed that various living beings nowadays have their connections to past beings.