What is a Recession?
By Penelope Trent - May 28, 2023

Recessions are marked drops in economic activity that can endure for several months or even years. When a country’s economy faces negative gross domestic product (GDP), growing unemployment, declining retail sales, and contraction income and manufacturing metrics over an extended period of time, experts proclaim a recession. Recessions are seen as an inevitable component of the economic cycle, or the predictable rhythm of expansion and recession in a country’s economy.

In a recession, businesses struggle to sell products, individuals lose their jobs, and the nation’s overall economic output falls. A number of variables affect when the economy enters a recession officially. A recession can begin in a variety of ways, such as by an unexpected economic shock or the effects of unchecked inflation. Some of the primary causes of a recession include these phenomena.

Getty Images/ Moment/ Javier Ghersi

An economic shock is an unexpected issue that causes significant financial harm. In the 1970s, OPEC abruptly stopped supplying oil to the United States, sparking a recession as well as protracted queues at petrol stations. A more recent example of a quick economic shock is the coronavirus outbreak, which crippled economies everywhere. The expense of debt servicing can rise to the point that people or companies who take on excessive debt find themselves unable to make their payments. The economy is then turned upside down by increasing debt defaults and bankruptcies.

Emotionally motivated investing decisions almost always result in poor economic consequences. During a booming economy, investors may get overconfident. Stock market or real estate bubbles are inflated by irrational enthusiasm, and when they burst, panic selling may cause a market crash and a recession. The gradual, rising trend in prices known as inflation. Although high inflation is a risky occurrence, inflation itself isn’t always a bad thing. By hiking interest rates, central banks can control inflation, but doing so reduces economic activity.